Are we "noble in reason"? Perfect, in God's image? Far from it, says New York University psychologist Gary Marcus. In this lucid and revealing book, Marcus argues that the mind is not an elegantly designed organ but a "kluge," a clumsy, cobbled-together contraption. He unveils a fundamentally new way of looking at the human mind-think duct tape, not supercomputer-that sheds light on some of the most mysterious aspects of human nature.
Taking us on a tour of the fundamental areas of human experience-memory, belief, decision making, language, and happiness-Marcus reveals the myriad ways our minds fall short. He examines why people often vote against their own interests, why money can't buy happiness, why leaders often stick to bad decisions, and why a sentence like "people people left left" ties us into knots even though it's only four words long. He also offers surprisingly effective ways to outwit our inner kluge-for example, always consider alternative explanations, make contingency plans, and beware the vivid, personal anecdote. Throughout, he shows how only evolution-haphazard and undirected-could have produced the minds we humans have, while making a brilliant case for the power and usefulness of imperfection.